• Applications of transmission electron microscopy to virus detection and identification

    The size of viruses is with a few exceptions (the mimiviruses, poxviruses and some iridoviruses) below the resolution of the optical microscope. The 1000 times higher resolution of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), compared with the light microscope, allows direct observation of small virus particles. The improvement of both TEM equipment and technical procedures allows quick preparative methods and diagnosis…

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  • Clinical courses and neurological signs of canine distemper virus infection in dogs

    Independent of the occurrence of neuropathological lesions, nervous infection by canine distemper virus (CDV) may lead to a variety of neurological signs observed singly or in combination; these signs include behavioral changes, focal to generalized seizures, cerebellar and vestibular signs, visual deficits, paresis and paralysis, tremors and limb weakness, myoclonus, and signs of leptomeningitis such as cervical rigidity and generalized…

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  • Entamoeba histolytica: trophozoite, precyst and cyst studied by atomic force microscopy

    Amoebiasis is a disease caused by the cosmopolite parasitic protozoa E. histolytica; it has been estimated that the 10% of the world population is infected by this protozoa, which represents approximately 50 million of invasive amoebiasis cases and as much as 100,000 deaths per year. E. histolytica have four stages: the trophozoite, precyst, cyst and metacyst; trophozoite is the invasive…

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  • Bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Boza

    Bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from Boza, a traditional fermented beverage from Balkan Peninsula – from isolation to application Boza’s origin dates back to the ancient populations that lived in Anatolia and Mesopotamia. The preparation formula was taken by the Ottomans and spread over the countries they conquered. Boza is a low-alcohol beverage produced from the fermentation of barley,…

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  • Mechanism of action and applications of the antimicrobial properties of copper

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for most living organisms, serving as a redox-active cofactor for important enzymes such as the terminal respiratory oxidases and superoxide dismutase. However, in excess copper can be extremely toxic, due in part to this same redox-activity by which copper ions can catalyse the production of deleterious reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also due to its…

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  • Microbial pathogens

    Strengthening the immune system as an antimicrobial strategy against Staphylococcus aureus infections

    Introduction Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonises the nose of about 20% of the healthy population, but can also cause mild to severe infections. Antibiotic treatment of these infections is not always successful, resulting in substantial therapy failure. Therefore, more effective treatment is urgently required. Among alternative antimicrobial intervention strategies,  both active and passive immunisation in the prevention and cure of S.…

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